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کتاب عیب یابی شبکه های Campus

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Troubleshooting Campus Networks: Practical Analysis of Cisco and LAN Protocols

Wiley | 2002-07-19 | 608 pages | PDF | 3,4 Mb

خواندن این کتاب را به مدیران شبکه های سازمانی مبتنی بر تجهیزات سیسکو پیشنهاد می کنیم. عناوین فهرست این کتاب در ذیل آورده شده است:

 

Chapter 1: Introduction
Why We Wrote This Book
Guaranteed Not To Rust, Bust, or Collect Dust
Audience and Scope
Cisco Certifications
The NAX Certification Program
Organization
Our Web Site

Chapter 2: Troubleshooting Methods
Challenges in Today's Networking Environment
Using a Systematic Troubleshooting Method
Using the OSI Model For Troubleshooting
Generic Problem-Solving Models
Fundamental Network Troubleshooting Considerations
Cisco's Troubleshooting Method
Define the Problem
Gather Facts
Consider Possibilities
Create an Action Plan
Implement the Action Plan and Observe the Results
Document the Results
Proactive Troubleshooting and Baselining
Documenting Your Network
Documenting Network Names and Addresses
Tools for Network Documentation
Documenting Switched Networks
CDP
Protocol Analysis
WildPackets Protocol Analyzers
Using a Protocol Analyzer in a Switched Network
Understanding Network Traffic
Reliable Versus Unreliable Protocols
Terminal/Host Traffic
Peer-to-Peer Traffic
Client/Server Traffic
Server-to-Server Traffic
Distributed Computing Traffic
Statistical Monitoring
SNMP and RMON
WildPackets Statistical Tools
Simulation and Modeling
Active and Reactive Troubleshooting
Tools for Troubleshooting the Physical Layer
Tools for Troubleshooting Above the Physical Layer
Ping
Trace-Route
Other Troubleshooting Commands
Cisco IOS Show Commands
Cisco IOS Debug Commands
Summary

Chapter 3: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Ethernet Networks
Ethernet History and Architecture
Ethernet Topologies
Ethernet Physical Layer
Protocol Analyzers and Ethernet Media
Signal Encoding
Manchester Encoding
MLT-3 Encoding
Other Signal Encoding Methods on Ethernet Networks
Clock Synchronization
Ethernet MAC Layer
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
Collision Domains
Bit Length and Measurement of a Collision Domain
Collision Domains in 100-Mbps Ethernet
Collisions on Networks with Hubs and Switches
Full-Duplex Operations
Full-Duplex Protocol Analysis
Autonegotiation
Advantages and Disadvantages of Autonegotiation
Flow Control on Full Duplex Links
Enhancements to Ethernet Media Access Control for Gigabit Ethernet
Ethernet Frames
Fields in an Ethernet II or IEEE 802.3 Frame Header
Destination Address
Source Address
Length or EtherType
Protocol Identifiers
LLC Frame Formats
LLC Type 1 Frame Format
LLC Type 2 Frame Format
SNAP
Ethernet or IEEE 802.3 Frame Footer
Ethernet Frame Sizes
Configuring and Troubleshooting Ethernet Frame Sizes
Maximum Transmission Unit
Tunneling and Frame Lengths
VLAN Tagging and Baby Giants
Collecting and Understanding Ethernet Performance Data
RMON
The Cisco Show Interface Ethernet Command
Bandwidth
Delay
Utilization
Reliability
Collision Rate
Frame Corruption
Broadcast and Multicast Rates
Cisco's Broadcast Suppression Feature
Summary

Chapter 4: Troubleshooting and Analyzing IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks
Chapter Scope and Depth
Things That Are Beyond the Scope of This Chapter
A Primer on Wireless Networking
Wireless Networking Fundamentals
What Is a Wireless Network?
The Challenge of Wireless Network Design
Protocol Analysis in Wireless Networks
Wireless Networking Technologies
Narrowband Radio Transmission (Radio LAN)
FHSS
DSSS
IR
Bluetooth and the Personal Area Network (PAN)
Conflicts between Bluetooth and 802.11 Networks
Other Wireless Standards
Organization of the WLAN Environment
The BSS
The ESS
The TSF
Station Initialization Behavior
Channel Selection
Authentication
Association to the BSS
Analysis of the Initialization Process
Packet Acknowledgment
802.11 Media Access Control
Interframe Spacing
The Network Allocation Vector
The Request to Send/Clear to Send Mechanism
Synopsis of the 802.11 Environment
RF Transmission
Frequency Allocation
Mathematics for RF Engineering
The Decibel Unit of Measurement
A Synopsis without Any Complicated Math
Understanding Decibels
Important Things to Remember about Decibels
Specifications Involving Gain or Loss
The Decibel-Milliwatt
Relationships between Metrics
The Wonder of Logarithmic Calculations
Applying the Principle of Logarithmic Subtraction
Concluding Thoughts on Logarithmic Subtraction
Application of dB and dBm Measurements
Free Space Propagation
Multiplying Logarithms Is Like Exponentiation
Free Space Path Loss Conclusions
Environmental Factors that Affect 802.11 Transmission
Reflection
Absorption
Refraction
Diffraction
Concepts for Site Survey Troubleshooting
Clear Channel Power Assessment
Limitations on RF Signal Transmission
Shannon's Channel Capacity Theorem
Gaussian Noise
Multipath Transmission
Real-World Path Loss
Calculating Real-World Path Loss
Antenna Positioning for Maximum Coverage
Protocol Analyzer Reporting of Signal Strength
Determining the Significance of Vendor Specifications
Output Power
Receiver Sensitivity
The Impact of Environmental Noise
Network Utilization
Signal Strength, Bad Packets, and Network Utilization
Checksum Errors
Site Survey Techniques for WLAN Troubleshooting
Estimating Effective Range
AP Placement Considerations
Troubleshooting Network Design Problems
Large Packets and Collisions
Numerous Simultaneous Users and Collisions
Practical Limits on User Community Size
Configuration Settings
IP Address
ESSID
Fragmentation Threshold
RTS Threshold
Authentication Type
WEP Key and Passphrase
Understanding the 802.11 Packet Decode
Version
Type and Subtype
One-Bit Fields
Duration
BSSID
Source
Destination
Receiver
Transmitter
Seq. Number
Frag. Number
Summary

Chapter 5: Troubleshooting and Analyzing the Spanning Tree Protocol
Poetic Interoperations
Transparent Bridging
Bridging Tasks
Bridging Loops
STP Behavior
BPDUs
Protocol Analysis of BPDUs
Flags
Bridge IDs
Cost of Path to Root
Port ID
Message Age
Maximum Age
Hello Time
Forward Delay
STP Convergence
Electing the Root Bridge
Electing Root Ports
Electing Designated Ports
Selecting Bridge Ports for the Spanning Tree
Port States
The Topology Change Process
Bridging Table Timeout
Proactive Troubleshooting of STP
Documenting Your Switched Network
Monitoring STP
Logging STP Events on Cisco Switches
Logging STP Events on Cisco Routers
Reactive Troubleshooting of STP
One-Way Connectivity
Reducing Startup Delay on Cisco Switch Ports
Cisco's Portfast Feature
Optimizing Spanning Tree Implementations
Uplink Fast and Backbone Fast
Load Sharing
Selecting the Root Bridge Deterministically
Configuring Bridge Priority
Root Guard
Summary

Chapter 6: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Virtual LANs
VLAN Frameworks
VLAN Definitions
VLANs and Non-VLANs
The Design of a VLAN
Interconnected Switches
Protocol Analysis in a VLAN Environment
VLAN Memberships
Configuring VLANs
Assigning a VTP Domain
Creating a VLAN
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Verifying VLAN Configuration
VLAN Trunks
ISL and 802.1Q Comparison
Routers and VLAN Trunks
Cisco's ISL
Dynamic Inter-Switch Link Protocol
DISL Frames
IEEE 802.1Q
Configuring 802.1Q
Per-VLAN Spanning Trees
Troubleshooting Cisco's VTP
VTP Names and Passwords
VTP Pruning
Analyzing and Monitoring VTP
Summary

Chapter 7: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Campus IP Networks
TCP/IP History
The TCP/IP Protocol Stack
IP
IP Protocol Analysis
The IP Type of Service or DS Field
The IP Precedence Subfield
The IP Type of Service Subfield
The DS Subfield
IP Fragmentation and Reassembly
Flags
Fragment Offset
Identification
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Fragmentation and Reassembly
IP TTL
The IP Protocol Field
IP Options
IP Source Routing
IP Record-Route
IP Addressing
Moving the Prefix Boundary to the Right (Subnetting)
Claude Shannon and Boolean Logic
Moving the Prefix Boundary to the Left (Supernetting)
ARP
Proxy ARP
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
DHCP
DHCP and Routers
Monitoring and Troubleshooting DHCP
Private IP Addresses
NAT
Monitoring and Troubleshooting NAT
IP Multicast Addresses
IGMP
Multicast Routing Protocols
IPv6
IPv6 Protocol Analysis
IPv6 Extensions
IPv6 Autoconfiguration
Summary

Chapter 8: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Campus IP Routing Protocols
Host Routing
HSRP
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Host Routing
Static and Default Routing
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Static and Default Routes
Dynamic Routing
Distance-Vector versus Link-State Routing
Distance-Vector Routing Protocols
Advanced Features of Distance-Vector Routing Protocols
Link-State Routing Protocols
Using Multiple Routing Protocols
Integrated Routing and Bridging
General Comments on Troubleshooting IP Routing
Sample Network Used in Protocol Analysis Examples
RIP
RIP Protocol Analysis
RIP Timers
RIPv2
Cisco Show and Debug Commands for RIP
IGRP
IGRP Protocol Analysis
IGRP Triggered Updates and Poison Reverse
Cisco Show and Debug Commands for IGRP
EIGRP
EIGRP Protocol Analysis
EIGRP Queries
EIGRP Routes Stuck in Active
Cisco Show and Debug Commands for EIGRP
OSPF
OSPF Network Architectures
OSPF Protocol Analysis
Building an Adjacency
Cisco Show and Debug Commands for OSPF
BGP
BGP Protocol Analysis
Cisco Show and Debug Commands for BGP
Summary

Chapter 9: Troubleshooting and Analyzing TCP, UDP, and Upper-Layer IP Protocols
Upper-Layer IP Protocol Analysis
TCP
TCP Protocol Analysis
TCP Port Numbers
TCP Connection Establishment
TCP Reliable Delivery and Flow Control
TCP Delayed Acknowledgments
TCP Slow Start
TCP Window Size Analysis
The Sender Does Not Approach the Receiver's Capacity
The Sender Begins to Approach the Receiver's Capacity
The Sender Overloads the Receiver's Capacity
Zero Window at Conversation Start
The Stuck Window Situation
Identifying TCP Performance Problems
TCP Poetry
TCP Connection Termination
TCP Checksum
UDP
UDP Protocol Analysis
UDP Port Numbers
Application-Layer Protocols
DNS
DNS Protocol Analysis
SLP
HTTP
HTTP Proxy Servers
HTTP Protocol Analysis
HTTP Advanced Commands
HTTP Replies
FTP
FTP File Types and Structures
FTP Protocol Analysis
FTP Commands
FTP Replies
FTP Active versus Passive Mode
FTP Active Mode
FTP Passive Mode
Protocols for Electronic Mail
SMTP Protocol Analysis
SMTP Replies
POP3 Protocol Analysis
Summary

Chapter 10: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Campus IPX Networks
Novell NetWare Concepts
IPX Addressing
IPX Packets
Ethernet Frames in IPX Environments
Configuring Multiple IPX Ethernet Frame Types on Cisco Routers
NCP
Watchdog Spoofing
IPX SAP
SAP Filters
Get Nearest Server
Cisco Routers and Get Nearest Server
IPX Routing
IPX RIP
EIGRP for IPX
NLSP
IPX Networks in Transition
Troubleshooting IPX
Applying Your Protocol Analyzer
IPX Ping and Trace
Show IPX Route
Show IPX Servers
Show IPX Interface
Show IPX Traffic
Show IPX EIGRP
Show IPX NLSP
Debug IPX Packet
Debug IPX Routing
Debug IPX SAP
Summary

Chapter 11: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Campus AppleTalk Networks
AppleTalk Concepts
AppleTalk Architectures
AppleTalk Layering
AppleTalk and the OSI Reference Model
AppleTalk Addressing
AppleTalk Addresses on a Cisco Router
AARP
Dynamic Addressing
Discovery Mode
DDP
NBP
AFP
AFP over TCP
AppleTalk Routing
RTMP
End-Node Routing
ZIP
AURP
EIGRP for AppleTalk
Controlling AppleTalk Traffic
Static Routes
AppleTalk Access Lists
Filtering Cable Ranges
Filtering Zones
Macintosh Networks in Transition
Mac OS X
WebDAV
SLP
Mac OS X Initialization Traffic
Mac OS X Server Network Management Tools
Troubleshooting AppleTalk
AppleTalk Ping (Echo)
Cisco AppleTalk NBP Testing
Cisco IOS Show Commands for AppleTalk
Cisco IOS Debug Commands for AppleTalk
Summary

Chapter 12: Troubleshooting and Analyzing Windows Networking
Windows Networking Concepts
The NetBIOS Basis for Windows Networking
The History of NetBIOS
NetBIOS Function Calls
The Importance of NetBIOS
NetBIOS Consistency across Different Implementations
NetBIOS Naming Conventions
Qualifier Byte = 0x00
Qualifier Byte = 0x03
Qualifier Byte = 0x05
Qualifier Byte = 0x06
Qualifier Byte = 0x1B
Qualifier Byte = 0x1C
Qualifier Byte = 0x1D
Qualifier Byte = 0x1E
Qualifier Byte = 0x1F
Qualifier Byte = 0x20
Qualifier Byte = 0x21
The 0x0102_MSBROWSE_0x0201 Name
The Significance of NetBIOS Naming
NetBIOS Implementation Differences
A WINS Query Carried on UDP
A TCP NetBIOS Session Setup Request
TCP NetBIOS Data
NetBEUI Data Exchange (A Browse Packet)
IPX Name Query
Concluding Thoughts on NetBIOS Terminology
NetBIOS Name Management Mechanisms
Name Registration
NetBEUI
TCP
IPX
Name Resolution
NetBEUI
TCP
IPX
Name Refresh
Name Release
Management of NetBIOS Names with NetBIOS/TCP
Node Type Behavior
Troubleshooting NetBIOS Naming Problems
NetBIOS Data Movement
Session Behavior with NetBIOS/TCP
Reliable Data Transport with NetBIOS
The Workgroup Model and the Domain Model
Analysis of a Workgroup Authentication Operation
Authentication in the Windows NT Domain Model
NT Registry Parameters Controlling Replication
The Browse Protocol
Maintaining the Browse List
Browsing with Multiple Protocols
The Windows 2000 Model
Summary

Chapter 13: WAN Troubleshooting for LAN Engineers
WAN Concepts
WAN Standards
Understanding WANs from a LAN Management Perspective
WAN Components
End-to-End WAN Considerations
Troubleshooting WANs from a LAN Perspective
WANs and Retransmissions
Troubleshooting WANs from a Router Interface Perspective
Provisioning WAN Capacity
WAN Technologies
Leased Lines
HDLC
Troubleshooting Cisco's HDLC Implementation
PPP
Troubleshooting PPP
Frame Relay
Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
Frame Relay Congestion Control
Frame Relay Inverse ARP
Frame Relay LMI
Troubleshooting Frame Relay
Frame Relay Debug Commands
ISDN
ISDN Layer 1
ISDN Layer 2
ISDN Layer 3
Troubleshooting ISDN BRI Problems
ATM
ATM Virtual Circuits and Adaptation Layers
Mapping a Protocol Address to an ATM PVC
ATM QoS Specifications
CBR
rt-VBR
nrt-VBR
UBR
ABR
Troubleshooting ATM
Chapter and Book Summary

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